Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

On Regulating Lifetime of a 3-sink Wireless Sensor Network Deployed for Precision Agriculture

Kaushik Ghosh, Sarmistha Neogy, Pradip K Das, Mahima Mehta


The main motivation behind this work is regulating network lifetime of a WSN deployed in an agricultural land. In this paper we have proposed one 3-sink WSN architecture to be used for precision agriculture applications. The objective of this paper is twofold; to propose a model of WSN to be used for precision agriculture that prolongs network lifetime, and to regulate network lifetime through introduction of two parameters – neighbor density and effective network density. Neighbor density is the measure of density of neighbors around a particular node. Here we have seen that at an optimum value of neighbor density, lifetime of a network reaches its pinnacle. However, regulating network lifetime through neighbor density requires the nodes to be deployed in grid fashion. For networks where nodes are deployed in random fashion, effective network density may be used as regulating parameter for prolonging network lifetime. In this paper we propose two routing schemes: KPS and Loop Free (LF)-KPS for network lifetime enhancement. The results show that LF-KPS in particular outperforms some well-known protocols by a considerable margin.

Full Text:



Akkaya, K. and Younis, M. 2005. A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Ad hoc net- works 3, 3, 325–349.

Anastasi, G., Falchi, A., Passarella, A., Conti, M., and Gregori, E. 2004. Performance measurements of motes sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM international symposium on Modeling, analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems. ACM, 174–181.

Braginsky, D. and Estrin, D. 2002. Rumor routing algorthim for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications. ACM, 22–31.

Chang, J.-H. and Tassiulas, L. 2000. Energy conserving routing in wireless ad-hoc networks. In INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE. Vol. 1. IEEE, 22–31.

D´ıaz, S. E., Pe´rez, J. C., Mateos, A. C., Marinescu, M.-C., and Guerra, B. B. 2011. A novel methodology for the monitoring of the agricultural production process based on wireless sensor networks. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 76, 2, 252–265.

Faisal, S., Javaid, N., Javaid, A., Khan, M. A., Bouk, S. H., and Khan, Z. 2013. Z-sep: Zonal-stable election protocol for wireless sensor networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1303.5364 .

Ferentinos, K. P., Tsiligiridis, T. A., and Arvanitis, K. G. 2005. Energy optimization of wirless sensor networks for environmental measurements. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Measurment Systems and Applicatons (CIMSA). Vol. 51. 1031–1051.

Galmes, S. 2006. Lifetime issues in wireless sensor networks for vineyard monitoring. In Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2006 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 542–545.

Ghosh, K., Das, P. K., and Neogy, S. 2015. Effect of source selection, deployment pattern, and data forwarding technique on the lifetime of data aggregating multi-sink wireless sensor network. In Applied Computation and Security Systems. Springer, 137–152.

Ghosh, K., Das, P. K., and Neogy, S. 2016. Kps: A fermat point based energy efficient data aggregating routing protocol for multi-sink wireless sensor networks. In Advanced Computing and Systems for Security. Springer, 203–221.

Ghosh, K., Roy, S., and Das, P. K. 2009. An alternative approach to find the fermat point of a polygo- nal geographic region for energy efficient geocast routing protocols: global minima scheme. In Networks and Communications, 2009. NETCOM’09. First International Conference on. IEEE, 332–337.

He, T., Stankovic, J. A., Lu, C., and Abdelzaher, T. 2003. Speed: A stateless protocol for real-time communi- cation in sensor networks. In Distributed Computing Systems, 2003. Proceedings. 23rd International Conference on. IEEE, 46–55.

Heinzelman, W. B., Chandrakasan, A. P., and Balakrishnan, H. 2002. An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Transactions on wireless communications 1, 4, 660–670.

Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A., and Balakrishnan, H. 2000. Energy-efficient communication pro- tocol for wireless microsensor networks. In System sciences, 2000. Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on. IEEE, 10–pp.

Heinzelman, W. R., Kulik, J., and Balakrishnan, H. 1999. Adaptive protocols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking. ACM, 174–185.

Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., and Estrin, D. 2000. Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust commu- nication paradigm for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking. ACM, 56–67.

Lindsey, S. and Raghavendra, C. S. 2002. Pegasis: Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems. In

Aerospace conference proceedings, 2002. IEEE. Vol. 3. IEEE, 3–3.

Mahmood, D., Javaid, N., Mahmood, S., Qureshi, S., Memon, A. M., and Zaman, T. 2013. Modleach: a variant of leach for wsns. In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on. IEEE, 158–163.

Manjeshwar, A. and Agrawal, D. P. 2001. Teen: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In null. IEEE, 30189a.

Min, R., Bhardwaj, M., Cho, S.-H., Shih, E., Sinha, A., Wang, A., and Chandrakasan, A. 2001. Low-power wireless sensor networks. In VLSI Design, 2001. Fourteenth International Conference on. IEEE, 205–210.

Min, R. and Chandrakasan, A. 2001. Energy-efficient communication for ad-hoc wireless sensor networks. In Signals, Systems and Computers, 2001. Conference Record of the Thirty-Fifth Asilomar Conference on. Vol. 1. IEEE, 139–143.

Ojha, T., Misra, S., and Raghuwanshi, N. S. 2015. Wireless sensor networks for agriculture: The state-of-the-art in practice and future challenges. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 118, 66–84.

Sadagopan, N., Krishnamachari, B., and Helmy, A. 2003. The acquire mechanism for efficient querying in sensor networks. In Sensor Network Protocols and Applications, 2003. Proceedings of the First IEEE. 2003 IEEE International Workshop on. IEEE, 149–155.

Smaragdakis, G., Matta, I., and Bestavros, A. 2004. Sep: A stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Tech. rep., Boston University Computer Science Department.

Song, Y.-M., Lee, S.-H., and Ko, Y.-B. 2005. Ferma: An efficient geocasting protocol for wireless sensor networks with multiple target regions. In EUC Workshops. Springer, 1138–1147.

Ssu, K.-F., Yang, C.-H., Chou, C.-H., and Yang, A.-K. 2009. Improving routing distance for geographic multicast with fermat points in mobile ad hoc networks. Computer Networks 53, 15, 2663–2673.

Wang, N., Zhang, N., and Wang, M. 2006. Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry—recent development and future perspective. Computers and electronics in agriculture 50, 1, 1–14.

Wark, T., Corke, P., Sikka, P., Klingbeil, L., Guo, Y., Crossman, C., Valencia, P., Swain, D., and Bishop- Hurley, G. 2007. Transforming agriculture through pervasive wireless sensor networks. IEEE Pervasive Computing 6, 2.

Ye, F., Chen, A., Lu, S., and Zhang, L. 2001. A scalable solution to minimum cost forwarding in large sensor networks. In Computer Communications and Networks, 2001. Proceedings. Tenth International Conference on. IEEE, 304–309.